Injuries to the shoulder are common in contact sports, especially football codes. In addition to acute injuries, chronic shoulder pain and discomfort may present in athletes, particularly throwing athletes and swimmers. Physical tests can be helpful in diagnosing certain shoulder injuries.
In the previous issue, part 1 of this two-part series discussed general principles in assessing sports injuries and featured tests for the knee and ankle. Here, part 2 will consider some of the clinical examination techniques used for the diagnosis of specific shoulder injuries.