Increased fluid intake remains the cornerstone of therapy in the prevention of renal stones. Pharmacological agents may be required in patients with multiple recurrences.
- Increased oral fluids remains the cornerstone of stone prevention and is all that is required in most patients.
- The majority of stones are calcium containing, and up to 80% of patients with calcium stones have an underlying biochemical abnormality.
- Patients with a single stone should be investigated to detect significant associated medical problems or complications that require treatment, such as hyperparathyroidism, urinary tract infection and renal impairment.
- Patients with multiple recurrences usually warrant more extensive biochemical evaluation and consideration of specific prophylactic therapy.