Feature Article

Renal stones: causes, treatment and prevention

Peter DV Hughes, Stephen Joseph, Gavin J Becker



Increased fluid intake remains the cornerstone of therapy in the prevention of renal stones. Pharmacological agents may be required in patients with multiple recurrences.

Key Points

  • Increased oral fluids remains the cornerstone of stone prevention and is all that is required in most patients.
  • The majority of stones are calcium containing, and up to 80% of patients with calcium stones have an underlying biochemical abnormality.
  • Patients with a single stone should be investigated to detect significant associated medical problems or complications that require treatment, such as hyperparathyroidism, urinary tract infection and renal impairment.
  • Patients with multiple recurrences usually warrant more extensive biochemical evaluation and consideration of specific prophylactic therapy.