Children and adults with type 1 diabetes experience a range of benefits from regular exercise. Careful planning is required in order to minimise the risks, particularly for elite athletes and for all athletes who participate in endurance sports.
Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk and mortality in people with type 1 diabetes, but the fear of hypoglycaemia deters many from physical activity. To ensure that exercise is safe, careful planning of insulin dosing and carbohydrate intake and regular monitoring of blood glucose level (BGL) are important for these individuals. This review provides practical advice for clinicians who prescribe exercise to people with type 1 diabetes, and covers specific issues that are relevant to athletes performing at an elite level.