Open Access
Feature Article

Alcohol – use and misuse during the COVID-19 pandemic

Open Access
Feature Article

Alcohol – use and misuse during the COVID-19 pandemic

VICKI GIANNOPOULOS, KIRSTEN C. MORLEY, PAUL S. HABER

Figures

© motortion/stock.adobe.com model used for illustrative purposes only
© motortion/stock.adobe.com model used for illustrative purposes only
Dr Giannopoulos is a Senior Clinical Psychologist from Sydney Local Health District Drug Health Service, NSW and the Edith Collins Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney. Associate Professor Kirsten Morley is an Associate Professor in the Sydney School of Medicine (Central Clinical School) Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, NSW and the Edith Collins Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, NSW. Professor Haber is Clinical Director of Drug Health Services, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital; and Head of Discipline and Conjoint Professor, Addiction Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

 

Advertisement

References

1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Canberra: AIHW, 2020. Available online at: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia (accessed March 2021).
2. Teesson M, Ross J, Darke S, et al. One year outcomes for heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 83: 174-180.
3. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP). Guides for the preventative activities in general practice. 9th edition. Melbourne: RACGP; 2016. Available online at: https://www.racgp.org.au/download/Documents/Guidelines/Redbook9/17048-Red-Book-9th-Edition.pdf (accessed March 2021)
4. Dietze PM, Peacock A. Illicit drug use and harms in Australia in the context of COVID-19 and associated restrictions: anticipated consequences and initial responses. Drug Alcohol Rev 2020; 39: 297-300.
5. Jackson SE, Garnett C, Shahab L, Oldham M, Brown J. Association of the Covid-19 lockdown with smoking, drinking, and attempts to quit in England: an analysis of 2019-2020 data. Addiction 2020 Oct 21.  doi: 10.1111/add.15295.  [Online ahead of print].
6. Rehm J, Kilian C, Ferreira‐Borges C, et al. Alcohol use in times of the COVID 19: implications for monitoring and policy. Drug Alcohol Rev 2020; 39: 301-304.  
7. Narasimha VL, Shukla L, Mukherjee D, et al. Complicated alcohol withdrawal-an unintended consequence of COVID-19 lockdown. Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire) 2020; 55: 350-353. 
8. Biddle N, Edwards B, Gray M, Sollis K. Alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 period: May 2020. Canberra: The Australian National University: Centre for Social Research and Methods; 2020.
9. Foundation for alcohol research and education (FARE). Alcohol use and harm during COVID-19: data report. July 2020. Available online at: https://fare.org.au/wp-content/uploads/Alcohol-use-and-harm-during-COVID-19.pdf (accessed March 2021).
10. Beaudoin CE. Hurricane Katrina: addictive behavior trends and predictors. Public Health Reports 2011; 126: 400-409. 
11. Keyes KM, Hatzenbuehler ML, Hasin DS. Stressful life experiences, alcohol consumption, and alcohol use disorders: the epidemiologic evidence for four main types of stressors. Psychopharmacol 2011; 218: 1-17.
12. Campbell A. An increasing risk of family violence during the covid-19 pandemic: strengthening community collaborations to save lives. Forensic Science International Reports 2020; Dec 2: 100089. 
13. Skrzynski CJ, Creswell KG.  Associations between solitary drinking and increased alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and drinking to cope motives in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction 2020; 115: 1989-2007. 
14. Ritter A, Wilkinson C, Vuong T, et al. Distilling our changing relationship with alcohol during COVID-19 DPMP Monograph No. 29. Sydney: UNSW Social Policy Research Centre; 2020. 
15. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Patient experiences in Australia: summary of finding. 2019-2020. Available online at: https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/health/health-services/patient-experiences-australia-summary-findings/latest-release (accessed March 2021).
16. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP). Health of the Nation Report 2020. Available online at:  https://www.racgp.org.au/health-of-the-nation/health-of-the-nation (accessed March 2021).  
17. Bush K, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD, Bradley KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158:  1789-1795. 
18. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA; American Psychiatric Association: 2013.
19. Haber P, Lintzeris N, Proude E, Lopatko O. Guidelines for the treatment of alcohol problems. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health  and Ageing; 2009. Available online at: https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-problems_0.pdf (accessed March 2021).
20. Grant BF, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, et al. Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 807-816.
21. Carvalho P, Moreira MM, de Oliveira M, Landim J, Neto M. The psychiatric impact of the novel coronavirus outbreak. Psychiatry Res 2020; 286: 112902. 
22. Torales J, O’Higgins M, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Ventriglio A. The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2020; 66: 317-320. 
23. Rossi R, Socci V, Talevi D, et al. COVID-19 and lockdown measures impact on mental health among the general population in Italy. Front Psychiatry 2020; 11: 790.
24. ABC News. Neal M.  Good Friday was Lifeline’s busiest day ever as coronavirus puts strain on mental health. April 2020. Available online at: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-19/good-friday-was-lifeline-busiest-day-ever-coronavirus-anxiety/12161104?utm_source=abc_news_web&utm_medium=content_shared&utm_content=link&utm_campaign=abc_news_web (accessed March 2021).
25. Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med 2002; 32: 959-976.
26. Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. 2nd Ed. Sydney: Psychology Foundation; 1995.
27. Whitlock, EP, Polen, MR, Green, CA, et al. Behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce risky/harmful alcohol use by adults: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 557-568.