Major advances have been made in paediatric pain management in the last decade. Excellent evidence based guidelines are now available to assist in the treatment of acute pain and procedure-related pain in neonates, children and adolescents.
- Excellent evidence based guidelines are available for the treatment of acute and procedural pain in neonates, infants, children and adolescents.
- Nonpharmacological techniques are underused in children to reduce anxiety before and during medical procedures.
- Validated pain measurement techniques are available for children of all ages and stages of development.
- The dosage of paracetamol given for pain should not exceed 90 mg/kg/day for two days then 60 mg/kg/day, and should be reviewed every two days. The dose should be based on lean body mass if the patient is obese.
- Conversion of codeine to morphine may vary significantly in different racial groups and other oral opioids (e.g. morphine or oxycodone) may be more reliable.
- Generally, opioid dependence is not a problem in children when opioids are used with appropriate monitoring for the treatment of acute pain of short duration.
- Appropriate analgesia should be used if neonatal circumcision is indicated.