Open Access
Feature Article

Optimising micronutrients during pregnancy

Open Access
Feature Article

Optimising micronutrients during pregnancy

KAREN P. BEST, MARIA MAKRIDES, ROSALIE GRIVELL

Figures

© michaela besteiger/ stock.adobe.com
© michaela besteiger/ stock.adobe.com
Dr Best is a midwife; and Senior Research Fellow at South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide. Professor Makrides is a dietitian; and Deputy Director and Theme Leader at South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide. Associate Professor Grivell is a Maternal Fetal Medicine Subspecialist; and Matthew Flinders Fellow, College of Medicine and Public Health at Flinders University, Adelaide, SA.

 

Advertisement

References

1.    Ramakrishnan U, Manjrekar R, Rivera J, Gonzáles-Cossío T, Martorell R. Micronutrients and pregnancy outcome: a review of the literature. Nutr Res 1999; 19: 103-159.
2.    National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Australian Dietary Guidelines. Canberra: NHMRC; 2013.
3.    Department of Health. Clinical Practice Guidelines: pregnancy care. Canberra: Australian Government 2021. Available online at: https://www.health.gov.au/resources/collections/pregnancy-care-guidelines-and-related-documents#pregnancy-care-guidelines (accessed June 2021).
4.    de Seymour JV, Simmonds LA, Gould J, Makrides M, Middleton P. Omega-3 fatty acids to prevent preterm birth: Australian pregnant women’s preterm  birth awareness and intentions to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake. Nutr J 2019; 18: 74.
5.    Nassar N, Halligan GH, Roberts CL, Morris JM, Ashton AW. Systematic review of first-trimester vitamin D normative levels and outcomes of pregnancy. Am J Obstetr Gynecol 2011; 205: 208.e1-e7.
6.    Sebastiani G, Herranz Barbero A, Borrás-Novell C, et al. The effects of vegetarian and vegan diet during pregnancy on the health of mothers and offspring. Nutrients 2019; 11: 557.
7.    De-Regil LM, Fernández-Gaxiola AC, Dowswell T, Pena-Rosas JP. Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (10): CD007950.
8.    Obeid R, Holzgreve W, Pietrzik K. Is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate an alternative to folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects? J Perinat Med 2013;  41: 469-483.
9.    Hure A, Young A, Smith R, Collins C. Diet and pregnancy status in Australian women. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12: 853-861.
10.    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Monitoring the health impacts of mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification. AIHW Cat. no. PHE 208. Canberra; AIHW: 2016. 
11.    Abeywardana S, Sullivan EA. Neural tube defects in Australia. An epidemiological report. AIHW Cat no PER. 2008; 45. Sydney: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
12.    Food Fortification Initiative. Global progress of industrially milled cereal grains. Available online at: https://www.ffinetwork.org/globalprogress (accessed June 2021).
13.    Lassi ZS, Salam RA, Haider BA, Bhutta ZA. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (3): CD006896.
14.    Charles DH, Ness AR, Campbell D, Smith GD, Whitley E, Hall MH. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and birth outcome: re-analysis of a large randomised controlled trial and update of Cochrane review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2005; 19: 112-124.
15.    Wen SW, White RR, Rybak N, et al. Effect of high dose folic acid supplementation in pregnancy on pre-eclampsia (FACT): double blind, phase III, randomised controlled, international, multicentre trial. BMJ 2018; 362: k3478.
16.    Delange F. Iodine requirements during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period and indicators of optimal iodine nutrition. Public Health Nutr 2007; 10: 1571-1580.
17.    Zimmermann MB. The adverse effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy and childhood: a review. Thyroid 2007; 17:  829-835.
18.    Li M, Eastman CJ, Waite KV, et al. Are Australian children iodine deficient? Results of the Australian national iodine nutrition study. Med J Aust 2006; 184: 165-169.
19.    Zhou SJ, Condo D, Ryan P, et al. Association between maternal iodine intake in pregnancy and childhood neurodevelopment at age 18 months.  Am J Epidemiol 2018; 188: 332-328.
20. Leventakou V, Roumeliotaki T, Martinez D, et al. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2014, 99: 506-516.
21. Olsen SF, Secher NJ. Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2002; 324: 447.
22.    Oken E, Kleinman KP, Berland WE, Simon SR, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW. Decline in fish consumption among pregnant women after a national mercury advisory. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 102: 346-351.
23. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Mercury in fish. Canberra; 2020. Available online at: https://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/chemicals/mercury/Pages/default.aspx (accessed June 2021).
24.    Middleton P, Gomersall JC, Gould JF, Shepherd E, Olsen SF, Makrides M. Omega-3 fatty acid addition during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 11(11): CD003402.
25.    Makrides M, Best K, Yelland L, et al. A randomized trial of prenatal n-3 fatty acid supplementation and preterm delivery. N Engl J Med 2019; 381: 1035-1045.
26.    Simmonds LA, Sullivan TR, Skubisz M, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy – baseline omega-3 status and early preterm birth: exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2020; 127: 975-981.
27.    Best KP, Gibson RA, Yelland LN, et al. Effect of omega-3 lcpufa supplementation on maternal fatty acid and oxylipin concentrations during pregnancy. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2020; 162: 102181.
28.    Agarwal S, Kovilam O, Agrawal DK. Vitamin D and its impact on maternal-fetal outcomes in pregnancy: a critical review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018; 58: 755-769.
29.    Palacios C, Kostiuk LK, Peña‐Rosas JP. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 7(7): CD008873.
30.    Peña‐Rosas JP, De‐Regil LM, Garcia‐Casal MN, Dowswell T. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; (7): CD004736.
31.    Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Gahche JJ, et al. Best practices for dietary supplement assessment and estimation of total usual nutrient intakes in population-level research and monitoring. J Nutr 2019; 149: 181-197.