Couples who have not conceived within 12 months should be assessed for infertility. Male factor causes of infertility are an important part of this assessment. History taking and clinical examination are key to identifying biological and environmental causes of male factor infertility, which include altered spermatogenesis, obstructive azoospermia, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and disorders of intercourse or ejaculation.
Up to 85% of couples attempting conception achieve pregnancy within the first six to 12 months. Assessment for infertility is recommended for couples who have not conceived after 12 months (and within six months for those with secondary factors affecting fertility).