Important issues in patients with mitral valve prolapse include bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis when there is mitral regurgitation and closer surveillance of patients who are aged 50 years and over.
- Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is characterised by an early systolic click, with or without an early systolic murmur audible at the mitral area.
- It is present in about 3 to 4% of the adult population and is largely benign.
- The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography.
- When a patient has a systolic murmur of mitral regurgitation, antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated for tooth extractions and surgical procedures.
- The principal complications of MVP occur infrequently, and usually after the age of 50 years. They include progressive mitral regurgitation, chordal rupture, atrial fibrillation and bacterial endocarditis.
- Mitral valve repair is usually indicated only for severe mitral regurgitation.