Feature Article

What’s the buzz around ‘lifestyle medicine’?

Garry Egger, HAMISH MELDRUM, Stephen Penman


1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Australia’s health 2016. Australia’s health series no. 15. Cat. no. AUS 199. Canberra: AIHW.
2. Sanders JW, Fuhrer GS, Johnson MD, Riddle MS. The epidemiological transition: the current status of infectious diseases in the developed world versus the developing world. Sci Prog 2008; 91(Pt 1): 1-37.
3. Egger G, Binns A, Rossner S, Sagner M, eds. Lifestyle medicine: lifestyle, the environment and preventive medicine in health and disease. 3rd ed. London: Academic Press; 2017.
4. Rippe J. Lifestyle medicine. 2nd ed. London: CJC Press; 2012.
5. Lenz TL. Lifestyle medicine for chronic disease. Omaha, NE: Prevention Publishers; 2013. 
6. Mechanick JI, Kushner RF. Lifestyle medicine: a manual for clinical practice. Basel: Springer International Publishing AG; 2016.
7. Chen G, Levy D. Contributions of the Framingham Heart Study to the epidemiology of coronary heart disease. JAMA Cardiol 2016; 1(Pt 7): 825-830. 
8. Birkhead SF. The Nurses’ Health Study: Beyond specimens and questionnaires. Am J Pub Health 2017; 107(Pt 3): e3. Published online doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303609.
9. McKenzie F, Biessy C, Ferrari P, et al. Healthy lifestyle and risk of cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95(Pt 16): e2850. Published online doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002850.
10. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004; 364 (Pt 9438): 937-952.
11. Ford ES, Bergmann MM, Kroger J, Schienkiewitz A, Weikert C, Boeing H. Healthy living is the best revenge: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169(Pt 15): 1355-1362.
12. Ornish D, Brown SE, Scherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial. Lancet 1990; 336(Pt 8708): 129-133.
13. Barnard R, Jung T, Inkeles S. Diet and exercise in the treatment of NIDDM: The need for early emphasis. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 1469-1472.
14. Ornish D, Magbanua MJ, Weidner G, et al. Changes in prostate gene expression in men undergoing an intensive nutrition and lifestyle intervention. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008; 105(Pt 24): 8369-8374.
15. Esselstyn CB Jr, Gendy G, Doyle J, Golubic M, Roizen MF. A way to reverse CAD? J Fam Pract 2014; 63(Pt 7): 356-364b.
16. Morton DP, Rankin P, Kent L, Dysinger W. The Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP): history, evaluation and outcomes. Am J Lifestyle Med 2016; Jan/Feb: 64-73.
17. Egger G. Defining a structure and methodology for the practice of lifestyle medicine. Am J Lifestyle Med 2016; doi/abs/10.1177/1559827616669327.
18. Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disease. Nature 2006; 444(Pt 7121): 860-867.
19. Pillans P. Medication overload and deprescribing. Paper presented to the Australian Disease Management Association Annual Conference, Brisbane, September 2015.
20. Swan M. Emerging patient-driven health care modes: an examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. Int J Environ Res Pub Hlth 2009; 6: 492-525.
21. Stevens J, Egger G, Cole M-A, Binns A, Dixon J. A user assessment of the potential for shared medical appointments in Australia. Aust Fam Phys 2014; 43(Pt 11): 904-907.
22. Santini ZI, Koyanagi A, Tyrovolas S, et al. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults: findings from a prospective community-based study. Exp Gerontol 2017; 91: 79-87. 
23. Hamlin MJ, Yule E, Elliot CA, Stoner L, Katiravel Y. Long term effectiveness of the New Zealand Green Prescription primary health care exercise initiative. Public Health, 2016; 140: 102-108.


Dr Egger is an Adjunct Professor of Health Sciences at Southern Cross University; and the Principal of the Centre for Health Promotion and Research in Sydney. He is also Vice President of the Australasian Society of Lifestyle Medicine (ASLM) in Sydney. Dr Meldrum is a GP and President of the ASLM. Stephen Penman is Executive Director of the ASLM, Sydney, NSW.