Open Access
Immunisation update

Keeping up with vaccinations. What's new, what's available and who to ask for help

ARCHANA KOIRALA, LUCY DENG, Nicholas Wood
Already a subscriber? Login here for full access.
Full Text: PDF

 

Advertisement

References

1.    Paules C, Subbarao K. Influenza. Lancet 2017; 390: 697-708.
2.    Li-Kim-Moy J, Yin JK, Patel C, et al. Australian vaccine preventable disease epidemiological review series: influenza. Commun Dis Intell 2016; 40: E482-E495.
3.    Naidu L, Chiu C, Habig A, et al. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2013; 37 Suppl: S1-S95.
4.    Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI). Australian immunisation handbook. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health; 2018. Available online at: https://immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au (accessed October 2019).
5.    Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee. July 2019 PBAC meeting – positive recommendations. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health; 2019. Available online at: www.pbs.gov.au/industry/listing/elements/pbac-meetings/pbac-outcomes/2019-07/positive-recommendations-07-2019.pdf (accessed October 2019).
6.    Cheng AC, Holmes M, Dwyer DE, et al. Influenza epidemiology in patients admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2017: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN). Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2019; 43. doi: 10.33321/cdi.2019.43.39.
7.    O’Hagan D, Ott GS, De Gregorio E, Seubert A. The mechanism of action of MF59 – an innately attractive adjuvant formulation. Vaccine 2012; 30: 4341-4348.
8.    Frey SE, Reyes MR, Reynales H, et al. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of an MF59®-adjuvanted with a non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine in elderly subjects. Vaccine 2014; 32: 5027-5034.
9.    Mannino S, Villa M, Apolone G, et al. Effectiveness of adjuvanted influenza vaccination in elderly subjects in northern Italy. Am J Epidemiol 2012; 176: 527-533.
10.    Falsey AR, Treanor JJ, Tornieporth N, Capellan J, Gorse GJ. Randomized, double-blind controlled phase 3 trial comparing the immunogenicity of high-dose and standard-dose influenza vaccine in adults 65 years of age and older. J Infect Dis 2009; 200: 172-180.
11.    AusVaxSafety. Influenza vaccine safety data. AusVaxSafety 2019. Available online at: www.ausvaxsafety.org.au/safety-data/influenza-vaccine (accessed October 2019).
12.    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. Sydney: NCIRS; 2019. Available online at: http://ncirs.org.au (accessed October 2019).
13.    Kelso JM. Administering influenza vaccine to egg-allergic persons. Expert Rev Vaccines 2014; 13: 1049-1057.
14.    Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. ASCIA Guidelines – Vaccination of the egg-allergic individual. Available online at: www.allergy.org.au/images/stories/pospapers/
ASCIA_Guidelines_vaccination_egg_allergic_individual_2017.pdf
(accessed October 2019).
15.    Vellozzi C, Iqbal S, Broder K. Guillain-Barré syndrome, influenza, and influenza vaccination: the epidemiologic evidence. Clin Infect Dis 2014; 58: 1149-1155.
16.    Tokars JI, Lewis P, DeStefano F, et al. The risk of Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine and 2009–2010 seasonal influenza vaccines: results from self‐controlled analyses. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2012; 21: 546-552.
17.    Principi N, Esposito S. Vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Vaccine 2019; 37: 5544-5550.
18.    Kwong JC, Vasa PP, Campitelli MA, et al. Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and influenza health-care encounters: a self-controlled study. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13: 769-776.
19.    Baxter R, Lewis N, Bakshi N, Vellozzi C, Klein NP. Recurrent Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccination. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54: 800-804.
20.    Kuitwaard K, van Koningsveld R, Ruts L, Jacobs BC, van Doorn PA. Recurrent Guillain–Barré syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80: 56-59.
21.    Wijdicks EF, Fletcher DD, Lawn ND. Influenza vaccine and the risk of relapse of Guillain–Barre syndrome. Neurology 2000; 55: 452-453.
22.    Pritchard J, Mukherjee R, Hughes R. Risk of relapse of Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy following immunisation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73: 348-349.
23.    Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS. Red Book: 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 31st ed. Itasca: American Academy of Paediatrics, 2019. 
24.    Gans HA, Arvin AM, Galinus J, Logan L, DeHovitz R, Maldonado Y. Deficiency of the humoral immune response to measles vaccine in infants immunized at age 6 months. JAMA 1998; 280: 527-532.
25. Measles Outbreaks 2019. Australian Government Department of Health. Available online at: www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-measles-outbreaks-2019.htm (accessed October 2019).
26.    Brugha R, Ramsay M, Forsey T, Brown D. A study of maternally derived measles antibody in infants born to naturally infected and vaccinated women. Epidemiol Infect 1996; 117: 519-524.
27.    Guerra FM, Crowcroft NS, Friedman L, et al. Waning of measles maternal antibody in infants in measles elimination settings – a systematic literature review. Vaccine 2018; 36: 1248-1255.
28.    Maldonado YA, Lawrence EC, DeHovitz R, Hartzell H, Albrecht P. Early loss of passive measles antibody in infants of mothers with vaccine-induced immunity. Paediatrics 1995; 96: 447-450.
29.    Waaijenborg S, Hahné SJ, Mollema L, et al. Waning of maternal antibodies against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in communities with contrasting vaccination coverage. J Infect Dis 2013; 208: 10-16.
30.    World Health Organization. New measles surveillance data for 2019. Geneva: WHO; 2019. Available online at: www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/measles-data-2019/en/ (accessed October 2019).
31.    Chiu C, Dey A, Wang H, et al. Vaccine preventable diseases in Australia, 2005 to 2007. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2010; 34: S1. Available online at: www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-cdi34suppl.htm/$FILE/cdi34suppl.pdf (accessed October 2019).
32.    Significant events in measles, mumps and rubella vaccination practice in Australia. National Centre for immunisation research and surveillance, 2018. Available online at: http://ncirs.org.au/sites/default/files/2019-07/Measles-mumps-rubella-history-July%202019.pdf (accessed October 2019).
33.    Pillsbury A, Quinn H. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012. Western Pac Surveill Response 2015; 6: 43-50.
34.    Bianco E, Price D, Jefferson T, Demicheli V. Vaccines for measles mumps and rubella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; (2): CD004407. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub3.
35.    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. Measles vaccination catch-up guidelines for Australian immunisation providers. Sydney: NCIRS; 2019. Available online at: http://ncirs.org.au/sites/default/files/2019-06/NCIRS%20Measles%20vaccination%20catch-up%20guide%20for%20immunisation%20providers13062019.pdf (accessed October 2019).
36.    Chen RT, Markowitz LE, Albrecht P, et al. Measles antibody: reevaluation of protective titers. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 1036-1042.
37.    Cohen B, Parry R, Doblas D, et al. Measles immunity testing: comparison of two measles IgG ELISAs with plaque reduction neutralisation assay. J Virol Methods 2006; 131: 209-212.
38.     Manual for the laboratory diagnosis of measles and rubella virus infection. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. Available online at: www.who.int/ihr/elibrary/manual_diagn_lab_mea_rub_en.pdf (accessed October 2019).
39.    Skoff TH, Blain AE, Watt J, et al. Impact of the US maternal tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination program on preventing pertussis in infants < 2 months of age: a case-control evaluation. Clin Infect Dis 2017; 65: 1977-1983.
40.    Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, Campbell H, et al. Effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in England: an observational study. Lancet 2014; 384: 1521-1528.
41.    Saul N, Wang K, Bag S, et al. Effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in preventing infection and disease in infants: the NSW Public Health Network case-control study. Vaccine 2018; 36: 1887-1892.
42.    Eberhardt CS, Blanchard-Rohner G, Lemaître B, et al. Maternal immunization earlier in pregnancy maximizes antibody transfer and expected infant seropositivity against pertussis. Clin Infect Dis 2016; 62: 829-836.
43.    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. Specialist Immunisation Clinic. 2019. Available online at: www.ncirs.org.au/nswiss (accessed October 2019).
44.    Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Uyeki TM. Effects of influenza on pregnant women and infants. AJOG 2012; 207 Suppl: S3-S8.
45.    Mertz D, Geraci J, Winkup J, Gessner BD, Ortiz JR, Loeb M. Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe outcomes from influenza virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Vaccine 2017; 35: 521-528.
46.    Thompson MG, Kwong JC, Regan AK, et al. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy: a multi-country retrospective test negative design study, 2010–2016. Clin Infect Dis 2018; 68: 1444-1453.
47.    Blyth CC, Macartney KK, McRae J, et al. Influenza epidemiology, vaccine coverage and vaccine effectiveness in children admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2017: results from the PAEDS-FluCAN collaboration. Clin Infect Dis 2018; 68: 940-948.
48.    Nunes MC, Madhi SA. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy for prevention of influenza confirmed illness in the infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018; 14: 758-766.
49.    Zaman K, Roy E, Arifeen SE, et al. Effectiveness of maternal influenza immunization in mothers and infants. NEJM 2008; 359: 1555-1564.
50.    Giles ML, Krishnaswamy S, Macartney K, Cheng A. The safety of inactivated influenza vaccines in pregnancy for birth outcomes: a systematic review. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019; 15: 687-699.
51.    Tapia MD, Sow SO, Tamboura B, et al. Maternal immunisation with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine for prevention of influenza in infants in Mali: a prospective, active-controlled, observer-blind, randomised phase 4 trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 16: 1026-1035.
52.    Steinhoff MC, Katz J, Englund JA, et al. Year-round influenza immunisation during pregnancy in Nepal: a phase 4, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 17: 981-989.
53.    Madhi SA, Cutland CL, Kuwanda L, et al. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women and protection of their infants. NEJM 2014; 371: 918-931.
54.    Regan AK, Klerk Nd, Moore HC, Omer SB, Shellam G, Effler PV. Effectiveness of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccination against hospital-attended acute respiratory infections in pregnant women: a retrospective cohort study. Vaccine 2016; 34: 3649-3656.
55.    Fell DB, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Baker MG, et al. Influenza epidemiology and immunization during pregnancy: Final report of a World Health Organization working group. Vaccine 2017; 35: 5738-5750.
56.    Mak DB, Regan AK, Vo DT, Effler PV. Antenatal influenza and pertussis vaccination in Western Australia: a cross-sectional survey of vaccine uptake and influencing factors. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018; 18: 416. 
57.    Carlsona S, Deya A, Bearda F. An evaluation of the 2016 influenza vaccination in pregnancy campaign in NSW, Australia. Public Health Res Pract 2019. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.17061/phrp29121908.
58.    Overton K, Webby R, Markey P, Krause V. Influenza and pertussis vaccination coverage in pregnant women in the Northern Territory in 2015 – new recommendations to be assessed. NT Dis Control Bull 2016; 23: 1-8.
59.    Danchin MH, Costa-Pinto J, Attwell K, et al. Vaccine decision-making begins in pregnancy: correlation between vaccine concerns, intentions and maternal vaccination with subsequent childhood vaccine uptake. Vaccine 2018; 36: 6473-6479.
60.    Mohammed H, Clarke M, Koehler A, Watson M, Marshall H. Factors associated with uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines among pregnant women in South Australia. PloS One 2018; 13: e0197867. 
61.    Krishnaswamy S, Cheng AC, Wallace EM, Buttery J, Giles ML. Understanding the barriers to uptake of antenatal vaccination by women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds: a cross-sectional study. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018; 14: 1591-1598.
62.    Jayasinghe S. Pneumococcal disease and vaccination recommendations: the state of play. RMT 2019; 4(2): 16-22.
63.    Geno KA, Gilbert GL, Song JY, et al. Pneumococcal capsules and their types: past, present, and future. Clin Microbiol Rev 2015; 28: 871-899.
64.    Klein DL. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: review and update. Microb Drug Resist 1995; 1: 49-58.
65. Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee. July 2019 PBAC outcomes – other matters. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health; 2019. Available online at: www.pbs.gov.au/industry/listing/elements/pbac-meetings/pbac-outcomes/2019-07/other-matters-07-2019.pdf (accessed October 2019).
66.    Immunisation coalition. The PneumoSmart Vaccination Tool. Melbourne 2016. Available online at: https://immunisationcoalition.org.au/pvt/ (accessed October 2019).
67.    Eastwood K, Graves SR, Massey PD, Bosward K, Hutchinson P. Q fever: a rural disease with potential urban consequences. Aust J Gen Pract 2018; 47: 112-116.
68.    Eldin C, Mélenotte C, Mediannikov O, et al. From Q fever to Coxiella burnetii infection: a paradigm change. Clin Microbiol Rev 2017; 30: 115-190.
69.    Gidding HF, Faddy HM, Durrheim DN, et al. Seroprevalence of Q fever among metropolitan and non‐metropolitan blood donors in New South Wales and Queensland, 2014–2015. Med J Aust 2019; 210: 309-315.
70.    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. Clinical research. Sydney: NCIRS; 2019. Available online at: www.ncirs.org.au/our-work/clinical-research (accessed October 2019).
71.    Australian Meat Processor Corporation. Australian Q fever Register. Sydeny: AMPC; 2019. Available online at: www.qfever.org (accessed October 2019).
72.    Q-fever – early diagnosis and vaccination. Brisbane; 2018. Australian college of rural and remote medicine. Available online at: www.acrrm.org.au/search/find-online-learning/details?id=11347 (accessed October 2019).
73.    SA Health. Immunisation Calculator. SA Health, 2019. Available online at: https://immunisationcalculator.sahealth.sa.gov.au/ImmuCalculator.aspx (accessed September 2019).
74.    National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance. Injection site reactions. Sydney: NCIRS; 2019. Available online at: www.ncirs.org.au/new-resource-injection-site-reactions-information-sheet (accessed October 2019).
 

Pages

Dr Koirala is an Immunisation Fellow at the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (NCIRS), Sydney; Paediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist at Nepean Hospital, Kingswood; and Clinical Associate Lecturer at The University of Sydney Children’s Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Sydney. Dr Deng is a Staff Specialist at NCIRS, Sydney; Paediatrician at The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney; and Clinical Associate Lecturer at The University of Sydney Children’s Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Sydney. Dr Wood is a Senior Staff Specialist at NCIRS, Sydney; Paediatrician at The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney; and Associate Professor at The University of Sydney Children’s Hospital Westmead Clinical School, Sydney, NSW.