Open Access
Feature Article

Obesity in primary care. 10 practical ways to help your patients lose weight

Open Access
Feature Article

Obesity in primary care. 10 practical ways to help your patients lose weight

Garry Egger, TIMOTHY GILL

Figures

Dr Egger is Adjunct Professor of Health Sciences at Southern Cross University; and Principal of the Centre for Health Promotion and Research, Sydney. He is also Vice President of the Australasian Society of Lifestyle Medicine (ASLM), Sydney. Professor Gill is Professor of Public Health Nutrition at the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders at The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

 

Advertisement

References

1.    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Impact of overweight and obesity as a risk factor for chronic conditions: Australian Burden of Disease Study. Australian Burden of Disease Study series no.11. Cat. no. BOD 12. BOD. Canberra: AIHW; 2017.
2.    The GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators. Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 Years. N Engl J Med 2017; 377: 13-27. 
3.    Sweeting AN, Caterson ID. Approaches to obesity management. Internal Med J 2017; 47: 734-746.
4.    Ard J. Obesity in the US: what is the best role for primary care? BMJ 2015; 350: g7846.
5.    Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet 2011; 378: 804-814.
6.    Egger G, Swinburn BA. Planet obesity. Sydney: Allen and Unwin; 2010.
7.    Swinburn B, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med 1999; 29: 563-570.
8.    Sharma AM, Kushner RF. A proposed clinical staging system for obesity. Int J Obes 2009; 33: 289-295.
9.    Australian Government Department of Health. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in adults, adolescents and children in Australia. Canberra: Department of Health; 2013. Available online at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/obesityguidelines-index.htm (accessed February 2018).
10.    Australian Lifestyle Medicine Annual Conference; 2017 Sept 15-17; Sydney (www.lifestylemedicine.org.au).
11.    Egger G, Dixon J. Obesity and chronic disease: always offender, or often just accomplice? Brit J Nutr 2009; 102: 1238-1242.
12.    Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disease. Nature 2006; 444: 860-867.
13.    Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation, metaflammation and immunometabolic disorders. Nature 2017; 542: 185.
14.    Mechanick JI, Hurley DL. Adiposity-based chronic disease as a new diagnostic term: The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology position statement. Endoc Prac 2017; 23: 372-378.
15.    Egger G, Dixon J. Inflammatory effects of nutritional stimuli: further support for the need for a big picture approach to tackling obesity and chronic disease. Obes Rev 2010; 11: 137-145.
16.    Egger G, Dixon J. Non-nutrient inducers of low grade, systemic inflammation: support for a ‘canary in the mineshaft’ view of obesity in chronic disease. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 329-345.
17.    Egger G. Defining a structure and methodology for the practice of lifestyle medicine. Am J Lifestyle Medicine 2016; https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827616669327.
18.    Rose J. The strategy of preventive medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1996.
19.    Chin S-H, Kahathuduwa CN, Binks M. Physical activity and obesity: what we know and what we need to know. Obes Rev 2016; 17: 1226-1244.
20.    Egger G. The all new GutBuster waist loss guide for men. Sydney: Allen and Unwin; 2016.
21.    Egger G, Stevens J, Ganora C, Morgan B. Programmed shared medical appointments (PSMAs) as a potential lifestyle medicine procedure for
chronic disease management in clinical practice. Aust J Gen Practice 2017; in press.
22.    Burke LE, Wang J, Sevick MA. Self-monitoring in weight loss: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Diet Assoc 2011; 111: 92-102.
23.    Semper HM, Povey DR, Clark-Carter D. A systematic review of the effectiveness of smartphone applications that encourage dietary self-regulatory strategies for weight loss in overweight and obese adults. Obes Rev 2016; 17: 895-906.
24.    Camacho S, Ruppel A. Is the calorie concept a real solution to the obesity epidemic? Global Health Action 2017; 10: 1289650. 
25.    Johnston BC, Kanters S, Bandayrel K, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2014; 312: 923-933.
26.    Kristensen M, Jensen MG. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake. Importance of viscosity. Appetite 2011; 56: 65-70.
27.    Reinbach HC, Smeets A, Martinussen T, Møller P, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effect of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance. Clin Nutr 2009; 28: 260-265.
28.    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Injury prevention and control: division of violence prevention. Atlanta, GA; CDC: 2018. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy (accessed February 2018).
29.    Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change (2e). New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2002.