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COMPETING INTERESTS: Professor Van Buynder has conducted clinical research on vaccine effectiveness of adjuvanted vaccines via an unrestricted grant from Novartis. He has also received support for research, education and marketing, travel and/or advisory board activities from Seqirus, Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, Pfizer and Novartis. Associate Professor Woodward has received funds for sitting on advisory boards and participating in educational events for Seqirus, Sanofi, MSD and GlaxoSmithKline.